Water Mathematics


You have seen many different kinds of water in your life already, but not everyone knows what makes natural water look realistic. Different natural water types have several properties in common but they are absolutely different in others. The key ingredients of natural waters are:

  • Reflecting the objects visible above the surface
  • Refracting the objects under the surface
  • Multiple reflections and refraction
  • Appropriate ratio between reflection and refraction: the Fresnel term
  • Some small modification in the colors (dirtier water), water-fog
  • Moving surface
  • Specular reflection
  • Deep water phenomena including caustics, spray, Godrays, foam and the Kelvin wedge

- Basic Water Physics - Optical Behavior

- Advanced Water Physics - Wave Motion

- Deep Water and Other Phenomena

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